What is syphilis?
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by a spirochete (a very small organism). It can affect the entire body and needs to be treated with antibiotics early to avoid serious problems.
How common is syphilis?
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2014, there were over 63,450 reported cases of syphilis in the U.S.
How is syphilis spread?
Syphilis is passed from person to person through direct contact with the syphilis sore or moist rash. It is usually passed through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. It can also be passed by kissing, hand contact, or other close personal contact. Pregnant women with syphilis can pass it on to their babies before birth.
Am I at risk?
Anyone having unprotected sexual contact with an infected person can get syphilis. Having more than one sexual partner increases your risk.
What are the symptoms of syphilis?
You may have syphilis and not have any symptoms, and still be able to pass it on to others. Early symptoms are very similar to those of many other diseases. Syphilis has 4 stages of symptoms- primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary.
Stage 1 – Primary: A painless sore (called a chancre- “shan-ker”) may show up at the area where the germ first entered the body, usually on the penis, anus, vulva, mouth, lips, or hand. It is firm and round and usually appears anywhere from 9 to 90 days (average 21 days) after exposure. Sores on the penis or vulva may not be noticed and can disappear on their own within 3-6 weeks. However, even with no sore you can still carry the germ and pass it on to others.
Stage 2 – Secondary: During this stage, you may have flu-like symptoms 3 weeks to 6 months after infection. At this time, you can also get a rash (usually brown sores about the size of a penny) on the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or the groin area. The rash may be over the entire body. Bacteria live in the rash, so any physical contact (sexual and nonsexual) with the rash can spread the infection. The rash usually heals within 2-6 weeks and can go away without treatment. The second stage can also include:
- Sore throat
- Swollen lymph glands
- Patchy hair loss
- Muscle aches
- Mucous spots or sores in the mouth
- Lumps or warts in warm, moist areas
Stage 3 – Latent: This stage usually appears when syphilis is untreated and “hidden.” A person can be in this stage of the infection for years. It can go on to stage 4 which can be serious.
Stage 4 – Tertiary: A few people develop tertiary, or late syphilis. This is when the bacteria damage the heart, eyes, brain, nervous system, bones, joints, or other parts of the body. This stage can occur 10-30 years after first contact with the infection, last for years, and can cause death.
Tertiary syphilis can cause:
- Mental illness
- Heart disease
- Brain damage
How is syphilis diagnosed?
Syphilis can be diagnosed by a physical exam, studying a sample of the fluid taken from a sore under a microscope, or more commonly a blood test.
Where can I get tested and treated for syphilis?
You can be tested and treated for syphilis at doctors’ offices, STI clinics, hospital clinics, Planned Parenthood or other family planning health centers, and health departments.
How is syphilis treated?
Syphilis is usually treated with penicillin, but other antibiotics can be used for patients allergic to penicillin. Some people with early stage syphilis may get a mild fever, headache, or a swelling of sores after treatment. This is not usually serious. After treatment, doctors will continue follow up appointments for about a year to ensure the treatment worked. You need to treat syphilis early, because damage caused by the disease cannot be undone.
Is there a connection between syphilis and HIV?
The genital sore (chancre) caused by syphilis makes it easier to get and pass on HIV infection. You are 2 to 5 time more likely to get HIV (if exposed to it) if you have syphilis.
How can I prevent spreading syphilis?
- If you are diagnosed with syphilis, stop having sex right away.
- Don’t have sexual contact even with a condom, or any direct contact, until you have finished treatment and your health care provider says it’s OK to have sex.
- If you find out you have syphilis, you need to tell your sexual partner(s) to get tested and treated quickly. Your State Health Department can help to get your sexual contacts treated.
How can I avoid getting syphilis?
The fewer sex partners you have, the less chance you have of getting syphilis. If you have sex, make sure you use a latex condom (polyurethane if you are allergic to latex). However, using condoms when sores are present does not protect against the disease. The condom may not cover sores on the body that can pass on the bacteria.
Can you get syphilis again?
Yes. Having syphilis once does not protect a person from getting it again. Because syphilis sores can be hidden in the vagina, rectum, or mouth, it may not be obvious that your sexual partner has syphilis.