Young women's version of this guide

iStock_000017382065SmallFoods such as wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, or products made from these foods are considered grains. Grains are high in carbohydrates which provide energy to your brain and muscles. Not all grains are created equally in terms of nutritional benefits. The health benefits of a grain depend on the form of the grain you actually eat.

What are the different types of grains?

There are two types of grains: whole grains and refined grains. When you eat a whole grain, your body is getting nutrients found in all parts of the grain. Whole grain foods include oatmeal, brown rice, and whole wheat bread. Refined grains have been processed and are missing some nutrients. Refined grain foods include white bread, white rice, and many kinds of pasta. When you eat grains, try having whole grains as much as possible.

What are some grains I can eat?

There are many different types of great tasting and good for you grains. Add variety to your diet by trying some of the grains listed below. These grains can be added to stews and soups, served as a side dish, or eaten as a hot cereal.

Amaranth is a whole grain that looks like tiny yellow seeds. You can use it to make hot cereal or add it to a whole-grain baked good for extra crunch and fiber.
Barley is a large, brown grain. You can find it in stores sold either as “pearled” or “unhulled.” Pearled barley is processed, while unhulled barley is a whole grain and has more vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Barley can be added to soups, stews, hot cereals, and casseroles. You can also try adding barley to salads or stuffing.Barley
Buckwheat is a reddish-brown plant seed, which can be eaten whole, cracked (broken), hulled (processed), or toasted. Kasha is made from buckwheat and can be used in pilafs, burgers, or in casseroles.Buckwheat
Corn is a grain that grows on a cob with the kernels enclosed in a leafy husk. Corn can be eaten whole or ground into cornmeal, which can be made into foods such as bread or tortillas. Corn (unless it is “degerminated”) is a whole grain. Many people are surprised to learn that popcorn is a whole grain.Corn
Millet is a small, yellow, and bead-like whole grain. Millet has a mild, nutty flavor and can be eaten in salads, pilafs, or mixed with pasta.Millet
Quinoa (pronounced keen-wa) is a small, disk-shaped seed either yellow or red in color with a light flavor and texture. Quinoa is a great source of protein and can be cooked and used in salads, soups, stews, pilafs, and as a substitute for rice.
Rice comes in many different varieties and is popular world-wide. Brown rice is a whole grain and contains more vitamins and minerals than white rice, which has the outer part removed. When cooked, long-grain rice is fluffier while short-grain rice is stickier.Rice
Teff is a very small brown grain the size of a poppy seed which is native to Africa. It has a somewhat nutty mild flavor and is high in minerals such as iron.
Wheat is a commonly eaten grain that comes is different forms. Whole wheat kernels (such as bulgur and wheat berries) can be eaten on their own as a side dish or in a salad. Look for versions of these products that contain “whole wheat”.Wheat
Nutrition Facts for Grains
½ Cup ServingFiber
Amaranth2.6 grams
Barley, pearled3 grams
Brown Rice2 grams
Buckwheat (kasha)2.3 grams
Bulgur4 grams
Corn2 grams
Millet1 grams
Teff3.5 grams
Quinoa2.6 grams
White Rice0.3 grams

How do I cook grains?

Often grains are made into food items you use every day such as bread and pasta. You can also cook the grains listed above and eat them on their own. Some require that you rinse them in cold water and then drain prior to cooking. Some grains are cooked by putting 2 cups of cold water in a pot and bringing to a boil, adding the 1 cup rinsed grains to boiling water and covering the pot. The heat is then turned down so the water is boiling lightly, or simmering. It is done when there is no water left and grains are slightly chewy. With this method it is important not to stir or uncover the pot while the grains are cooking. Be sure to follow the directions on the package for whichever grain you are cooking.

Cooking tips:

  • Rice doesn’t need to be rinsed like other grains.
  • Quinoa needs less water than other grains. Add 1 cup of quinoa to 1 ½ cups of water.
  • Whole grains take longer to cook than refined grains. For example, brown rice takes about 45 minutes to cook, but white rice only takes about 20 minutes.

Here are two easy recipes to try:

Veggie Rice Pilaf


1 ½ cups cooked brown rice (or other grain)

1 tablespoon butter or margarine

1 clove garlic, cut-up

1 medium carrot, sliced

1 cup mushrooms, sliced

½ cup chickpeas

1 egg, beaten

1/8 cup chopped parsley or cilantro

Black pepper and soy sauce to taste


  1. Heat butter or margarine in a frying pan.
  2. Add onions. Stir onions and cook until soft.
  3. Add carrots and garlic and cook for 5 minutes.
  4. Add mushrooms and cook for 10 more minutes.
  5. Add garbanzo beans and cook for 1 minute.
  6. Add egg and stir until the egg is cooked.
  7. Remove from heat and add parsley or cilantro, pepper, and cooked brown rice.
  8. Add soy sauce, if desired, and serve.



1 cup bulgur

2 cucumbers, peeled and chopped

3 green onions with tops, diced

3 tomatoes, seeded and chopped

2 teaspoons salt

½ cup lemon juice

1/3 cup fresh mint

2/3 cup olive oil


  1. Place bulgur in bowl and cover with 2 cups boiling water.
  2. Soak for 30 minutes. Then drain and squeeze out excess water.
  3. In a mixing bowl, combine the bulgur, tomatoes, cucumbers, onions, garlic, parsley, mint, salt, lemon juice, and olive oil.
  4. Mix and refrigerate for at least 4 hours before serving.
  5. Mix again and serve.