What other types of birth control are available for females?
Here are four additional types of female birth control methods (list from most effective to least effective):
- Abstinence (No sexual intercourse)
- Female Sterilization (Tubal Ligation)
- Copper Intra-Uterine Devices (non-hormonal IUDs)
- Fertility Awareness Based Method (FAB)
- Natural Family Planning
- Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)
How does each method work, and how effective are they at preventing pregnancy?
Each of these methods has a different efficacy rate towards preventing pregnancy. These rates vary depending on “typical use” (how people usually use it or if it’s not used every time you have sex) vs. “perfect use” (when it’s used perfectly, every time you have sex). Keep in mind that perfect use hardly ever happens.
Female sterilization is a permanent method of birth control. There are several different methods of female sterilization, and they all involve minor surgery. All methods either close or cut the fallopian tubes (the tubes that carry the eggs from the ovary to the uterus) so that sperm can’t move through and fertilize an egg. Another option for permanent birth control is male sterilization (vasectomy).
|Out of 100 women using female sterilization
|Typical Use: 1 or Fewer Women Become Pregnant
|Perfect Use: 1 or Fewer Women Become Pregnant
An IUD is a small device that is placed inside of a female’s uterus. The copper IUD does not use hormones. Instead, it has copper wire coiled around the stem and arms of the IUD, which prevents pregnancy. The copper IUD can stay in a woman’s body for up to 10 years.
|Out of 100 women using an IUD
|Typical Use: 1 or Less Women Become Pregnant
|Perfect Use: 1 or Less Women Become Pregnant
FAB methods are a way for a woman to become aware of when she is ovulating so that she can prevent pregnancy. When using this method to prevent pregnancy, sexual partners do not have sexual intercourse during ovulation (the time during a woman’s menstrual cycle when she is most likely to become pregnant). This is the least effective way to prevent pregnancy.
|Out of 100 women using fertility awareness based methods
|Typical Use: 24 Women Become Pregnant
|Perfect Use: 3 – 5 Women Become Pregnant
The LAM method is a temporary method of birth control that a woman can use under the following conditions:
- A woman is ONLY using breastfeeding to feed her baby (at least 6-10 times a day, including night feedings)
- The baby must be less than 6 months old
- She hasn’t had her period since giving birth
Breastfeeding a baby changes how a woman’s body works and prevents the ovaries from releasing an egg. When there is no egg, pregnancy can’t happen.
|Out of 100 women using the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)
|Typical Use: 2 Women Become Pregnant
|Perfect Use: 2 Women Become Pregnant
Do natural family planning methods of birth control protect against STIs?
No. None of these methods protect against STIs. If you’re sexually active, use a condom every time you have sexual intercourse to protect yourself from getting an STI. Abstinence (not having sex) is the only method that guarantees pregnancy and STI prevention.